Scalp diseases are considered one of the most seen reasons for admission to medicine clinics.The scalp lesions are subject to a wide range of different aetiologies. One of which are infectious diseases. Infections of the scalp are subdivided into three major groups. The most seen are:
Bacterial: Folliculitis, folliculitis decalvans, tufted hair folliculitis and acne keloidalis nuchae.
Fungal: Tinea capitis, favus and kerion celsi.
Protozoal: Syphilitic alopecia.
Bacterial infections of the scalp are Folliculitis, folliculitis decalvans, tufted hair folliculitis and acne keloidalis nuchae.
The hair on the body and the scalp grow out of hair follicles. Bacteria can penetrate the skin through damaged hair follicles, causing an infection called folliculitis. Hyperhidrosis, maceration, friction, overweight, medicines such as corticosteroids and haloge nated compounds are some of the predisposing factors. Also predisposed to folliculitis are immunodeficiencies such as HIV / AIDS and diabetes mell itus.
People can get scalp folliculitis from:
- Shaving or plucking hair on the scalp
- Touching the scalp often
- Tight hats or other headgear wearing
- A long time with hot, wet skin
Folliculitis causes every hair follicle to develop a red ring. This can lead to pain or itching. If a person knows what caused their folliculitis, the condition can be more easily prevented and treated. If they have shaved their head recently, for example, they can make an extra effort to prevent bacteria from entering the skin. This may include more frequent washing or more frequent headgear changes.
To control the inflammation of folliculitis decalvans, there are many different treatments available, but unfortunately no cure has been found. Scarring is permanent if it develops. The purpose of treatment is to reduce inflammation and prevent scarring.
Tufted Hair Folliculitis
Tufted hair folliculitis is a rare, progressive pattern that affects the scalp of scarred alopecia. The cause of this disorder is unknown. Staphylococcal organisms frequently are cultured from lesions of tufted hair folliculitis, but their role in pathogenesis is unclear.
Acne Keloidalis Nuchae
Acne keloidalis nuchae is a chronic inflammatory condition on the back of the neck. AKN is most commonly seen in men of African-Caribbean background but it is also seen in those of Hispanic, Asian, Middle Eastern and Mediterranean backgrounds.
The exact aetiology of AKN is unclear, but it is associated with several factors including exces s androgen, chronic mechanical trauma such as close haircuts and chronic rubbing of the area by clothing that stimulates an inflammatory reaction, secondary bacterial infection, density of mast cells and medications such as antiepileptics or cyclosporine AKN can be progressive, disfiguring and destructive. It is essential to have early diagnosis and treatment. Treatment is aimed at preventing scarring and permanent loss of hair.
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Tinea capitis is a fungal scalp infection most commonly associated with pruritic, scaling hair l oss areas.The main causes of tinea capitis are trichophyton and microsporum species of derma tophyte fungi. The most common clinical findings are single or multiple scaly patches with alopecia and patches of alopecia with black dots at follicular orifices that represent broken hairs. The primary treatment for tinea capitis is oral antifungal therapy.Typically patients react well to treatment.
Favus is an uncommon form of tinea capitis currently seen in geographic areas with poor sanitation and limited access to health care such as emerging nations.
Kerion celsi is a rare inflammatory and suppurating type of tinea capitis. It affects the scalp and that is characterized by the development of painful, crusty lesions surrounded by alopecic areas.
Syphilis is a disease of sexual transmission caused by Treponema pallidum. Syphilitic alopecia is a rare feature of secondary syphilis with 2,9–11,2 percent incidence. Other mucocutaneous symptoms of secondary syphilis may be seen with syphlitic alopecia. Hair loss usually occurs late in the secondary syphilis, approximately 8- 12 weeks after the first syphilis signs.Both the sexual history of the patient and positive serological tests for RPR and TPPA confir m the diagnosis of syphilitic alopecia.The treathment of Syphilitic Alopecia is antibiotherapy. Hair growth is observed approximately 6–12 weeks after treatment begins.